Near zero liquid discharge is an important design objective in inland desalination. Pellet reactor softening has been applied as pretreatment before RO and as stand alone process for inland desalination, depending on the salinity of the groundwater. Research sponsored by the Water Research Foundation (WRF) in the USA in 2007 concluded that pellet reactor softening is the preferrred treatment process of first stage RO concentrate to allow subsequent treatment of this concentrate in a second stage RO. The feasibility of this process was confirmed by pilot plant in research for the Arlington desalter in California.

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